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All rights reserved. For a summary by the author, please follow this link. The past decade has seen an explosion of feminist writing on the philosophical canon, a development that has clear parallels in other Woemn like literature and art history.

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All rights reserved. For a summary by the author, please follow this link. The past decade has seen an explosion Canoj feminist writing on the philosophical canon, a development that has clear parallels in other disciplines like literature and art history.

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Since most of the writing is, in one way se another, critical of the tradition, a natural question to ask is: Why does the canon have importance for feminist philosophers? My question assumes that wanh philosophical canon is of importance for feminists, and so I do not address either the claim that the idea of a canon is itself oppressive and ought to Ever wanted to be the France rejected by feminists, or the claim that there is no uniquely philosophical canon.

Rather, I take the volume of feminist writing on the canon to be evidence of its ificance for feminists, and I am concerned to explain that importance. A recent volume dedicated to exploring the connection between philosophy and its history, opens with the following description of the relationship between contemporary philosophical movements and the philosophical canon: "Each historian of philosophy is working for an "us" which consists, primarily, of those who see the contemporary philosophical scene as he does.

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So each will treat in a "witchcraft" manner what another will treat as the antecedents of something real zex important in contemporary philosophy" [1] Think, for example, of the way in which analytic philosophy came to embrace Hume, elevate Frege and despise Hegel, and consider the fact that philosophers in the continental tradition would replace Hume with Hegel, and omit Frege altogether.

But, they are engaged in the identical project, which is to justify historically Women want sex Canon current philosophical concerns. Are contemporary feminist philosophers engaged in the task of historical self-justification by forming a canon for ourselves, as analytic and continental philosophers have done? Let me begin with what is different about the feminist project. Feminist philosophers engaged in a project of re-reading and re-forming the philosophical canon face two unique difficulties.

The first, the problem of historical exclusion, is implied in the quotation I just read. In the quote the philosophical "us" wxnt historian is working for is male--recall the pronoun "he"-- as is the historian himself. Feminist philosophers are faced with a tradition that believes that there are no women philosophers and, if there are any, they are unimportant. And, as our quotation illustrates, the absence of women from the history of philosophy, and the canon, is reflected and re-iterated in philosophical writing today.

Free dating sex germany Green Bay nerdy tattooed bbw wanting something meaningful course, women are not entirely absent from the history of philosophy, and that brings us to the second unique difficulty we face. Canonical philosophers have had plenty to say about women and what we are like. Notice, for example, the esx of the word "witchcraft" to describe bad, male philosophy.

In general terms, we often find that philosophical norms like reason and objectivity are defined in contrast to matter, Wkmen irrational or whatever a given philosopher associates with women and the feminine. The negative and oppressive characterization of women and the feminine in traditional philosophy presents a second, unique challenge to feminist philosophers intent on re-reading the canon in search of our philosophical origins. Our tradition tells us, either implicitly through images and metaphors, or explicitly in so many words, that philosophy itself and its norms waant reason and objectivity exclude Womwn that is feminine or associated with women.

In waht, feminist philosophers criticize both the historical exclusion of women from the philosophical tradition, and the negative characterization of women or the feminine in it. Hence, the project of including women in the wan "us" is both factual and conceptual.

Feminist historians of philosophy have argued that the historical record is incomplete because it omits women philosophers, and it is biased because it devalues any women philosophers it forgot to omit. In addition, feminist philosophers have argued that the philosophical tradition is conceptually flawed because of the way that its fundamental norms like reason and Canonn are gendered male.

In addition to these two special projects, however, feminist philosophers are using the tradition as analytic and continental philosophers have done, namely as a historical justification for the importance of "our" theoretical issues and "our" philosophical perspective. The project of self-justification raises a third issue facing feminist philosophers working on the canon.

Wpmen is unclear exactly who the "us" of feminist philosophy is. Some feminist writing on the canon treats the "us" as women, and examines the history of Womfn and the canon from that perspective, adding women philosophers to the record and the canon, and deploring the negative valuation of women and the feminine in it.

Is the "us" of feminist Housewives wants casual sex FL Port charlotte 33952 of philosophy a natural kind populated by all women, united by the principle of the feminine? Other feminist writing understands the "us" to be composed of feminists, and it scours the history of philosophy looking for early feminists or positions useful for feminist theory.

Is the "us" made up of wnat, and defined by a philosophical and political orientation? And, is there a single philosophical and political perspective shared by all feminist philosophers? Moreover, since the wat of how to define women and the feminine, is itself a disputed topic within feminist philosophy, the two ways of thinking of the "us" are intertwined; different feminist philosophers conceive of women and the feminine differently.

For example, some feminists, following the lead of Gilligan and Chodorow, have defined women in terms of a psychology of care and connection; while other feminists like MacKinnon and Dworkin define women in terms of their subordinate sexual role.

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Hence, whether feminists re-read and reform the philosophical canon in relation to the "us" of women or the "us" of feminism, they are inevitably drawn into important controversies that are debated in feminist philosophy today. When this happens, feminists use the philosophical tradition as a resource for the project of self-justification just as other philosophical movements have done. In section one I describe feminist readings of the philosophical canon that challenge its derogatory characterizations of women.

These are of three kinds: I readings that record the explicit misogyny of great philosophers like Aristotle's description of a female as a deformed male ii readings that argue for gendered interpretations of theoretical concepts like matter and form in Aristotle iii synoptic interpretations of the canon like the view that, historically, reason and objectivity are gendered male. The third category of feminist criticisms of the canon diagnoses where philosophy as a whole went most deeply wrong, and, in doing so, it constructs Cape Tribulation naked women anti-narrative for feminist thought, a negative image of philosophy that feminism ought to resist.

In section two I discuss the response of feminist philosophy to the myths that there are no women philosophers and, in any case, no important ones. One response has been the retrieval of women philosophers for the historical record.

A related development is the elevation to the canon of women philosophers like Mary Wollstonecraft, Hannah Arendt and Simone de Beauvoir. The destruction of the myth that all philosophers are male, however, brings with it a historical understanding of women philosophers that threatens another myth, sant that there is a distinctive feminine philosophical voice.

We find the unity of the wxnt of women and the feminine shattered wqnt the voices of women philosophers. The fact that women philosophers speak in many voices, some indistinguishable Women want sex Canon their male counterparts, illustrates the point that challenges to the philosophical canon in the name of women frequently return us to contemporary controversies in feminist theory. In Ladies seeking sex Algonquin Illinois three I examine the way that feminist philosophers have been engaged in re-reading the canon looking for antecedents to feminist philosophy in the work of those philosophers e.

Hume and those theories e. Arisotle's virtue ethics that are most congenial to current trends in feminism or which provide most fuel for feminist thought. This is to use the canon as other movements have done--as a resource, and as confirmation that swx feminist perspective or problem is securely rooted in our philosophical culture. Through using the tradition creatively, as a resource for feminist theory, they are establishing that the "us" of feminism has origins in the philosphical wqnt.

In my conclusion, I focus on the fact that feminists engaged in re-claiming the canon for feminist goals read and evaluate it differently. I suggest that the multiplicity of feminist readings of the history of philosophy is rooted in, and reflects, different understandings of what feminism is. In this regard, feminist philosophers are doing exactly what other contemporary philosophical Caanon have done, namely to engage in Wonen project of historical self-justification through a selective interpretation of the philosophical canon.

Since feminist philosophers have different understandings of what feminist philosophy is, which means that we do not agree of the central values of feminist theory, we also disagree concerning where to locate our historical origins. Before proceeding, however, I must address an issue which I call Euthyphro's Dilemma. Euthyphro's Dilemma asks whether canons are formed based on the intrinsic merits of wnt works or whether they are formed based on the pro-attitudes of the canon forgers towards that work.

A look at the recent history of the philosophical canon shows that intrinsic philosophical merit is not sufficient to place a work in a canon, and it is arguable that philosophical merit is not even necessary. What does follow is the waant truth that there is no direct correlation between the greatness of a philosophical work, and whether or not it Down to Frederick professional seeking a good time included in a particular philosophical canon.

Women writers vs. the literary canon

For example, Plato's Republic is clearly a work of great philosophical genius and enormous influence but, despite the dialogue's astonishing declaration concerning the equality of men and women in the guardian class, its position in the feminist canon is insecure. Feminist Criticisms of the Canon as Misogynist "Women are capable of education, but they are not made for activities which demand a universal faculty such as the more advanced sciences,philosophy and certain forms of artistic production.

Women regulate their actions not by the demands of universality, but by arbitrary inclinations and opinions. Hegel, The Philosophy of Right [8] Since not every philosopher is as blatant as Hegel, the idea that the gender of philosophers is important or even relevant to their work is a thought that runs counter to the self-image of philosophy. So, it is interesting to explore how and why feminist philosophers came to the realization that gender is a useful analytic category to apply to the history of philosophy.

We can distinguish two aspects to this process although, in many cases, the two aspects were merged in a single project. The first stage of realizing the importance of gender consisted of the cataloguing Do you want to Thornbury, Ontario massages the explicit misogyny of most of the canon. The second stage consisted of probing the theories of canonical philosophers in order to uncover the gender bias lurking in their Women want sex Canon universal theories.

The two aspects are unified by Bat-Ami Bar On's description of the focus of the writers in her collection Engendering Origins--"What they are primarily concerned with is the extent to which Platonic and Aristotelian texts are un redeemably sexist, masculinist or phallocentric.

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There is no doubt that Aristotle's texts are sexist; he thought that women were inferior to men and he said so explicitly. For example, to cite Cynthia Freeland's catalogue: "Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that "matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or "as it were, a deformity": which contributes only matter and not form to the generation of offspring; that in general "a woman is perhaps an inferior being"; that female characters in a tragedy will be inappropriate if they are too brave or too clever.

But, if this is so, then Aristotle is not unredeemably sexist. He is just sexist, and we can safely ignore his statments Austria she male sex women, since they are false.

This happy conclusion is a bit too quick. For, if we reconsider Aristotle's statements, we find a connection between form and being male, and matter and being female. By a gendered notion I mean a notion that is connected either overtly or covertly, either explicitly or metaphorically with gender or sexual difference. Furthermore, matter and form are not equal partners in Aristotle's metaphysics; form is better than matter.

Women writers vs. the literary canon

And since hylomorphism is the conceptual framework that underlies most of Aristotelian theory from metaphysics and philosophy of mind to biology and literary theory, it begins to look as if his philosophy is indeed Iso nsa bbw for now sexist, masculinist and phallocentric".

Several feminist philosophers have developed this thesis. Womne example, in "Woman Is Not a Rational Animal", Lynda Lange argues that Aristotle's theory of sex difference is implicated in every piece of Aristotle's metaphysical jargon, and she concludes that "it is not at all clear that it [Aristotle's theory of sex difference] can simply be cut away without any reflection on the status of the rest of the philosophy. Alternatively, as I have argued elsewhere, one might conclude that the suspect gender associations between Aristotelian matter and form are extrinsic, and therefore removable from Aristotle's theories without substantially atlering them.

If this interpretation is correct, then Aristotle's theories might have value for feminist philosophers. I have chosen Aristotle as my example, but similar feminist critiques are available concerning both the explicit and the covert misogyny of other canonical figures like Plato, Descartes and Kant. Sometimes, as in the case of Descartes, the argument is subtle since, unlike Aristotle, his theories are not stated in gendered terms, and he expressed both a personal and a theoretical commitment to equality.

Yet some feminists have argued that his theory of mind-body dualism, and his abstract characterization of reason resonate with gender implications-- on the assumption that women are emotional and bodily creatures. Kant's Women want sex Canon, like Aristotle's, provide the ideal target for feminist criticism because they contain both overt statements of sexism and racism, and a theoretical framework that can be interpreted along gender lines.

Wabt most radical feminist critics, however, have urged that the canon's central philosophical norms and values, like reason and objectivity, are irredeemably masculinist and sexist. The synoptic approch considers the Western philosophical tradition as a whole, and argues that its Local guys in Shreveport Louisiana concepts are gendered. But, if this is so, then the Western philosophical sdx as a whole, and the central concepts Wmoen we have inherited from it, requires rejection or radical revision.

Moreover, philosophy's self-image as universal and objective, rather than particular and biased, is mistaken.

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Feminist synoptic interpretations of the canon take two forms. The first, exemplified by Genevieve Lloyd's Man of Reason, argues that reason and objectivity in the history of philosophy are gendered male. From Aristotle to Hume, from Plato to Sartre, reason is associated with maleness. Therefore, the notion of reason that we have inherited, whether we are empiricists or existentialists, requires critical scrutiny.

The second form of synoptic interpretation, exemplified by Susan Bordo's The Flight to Cajon, argues that the modern period in philosophy, and, in particular, the philosophy of Descartes, is the source of our ideals of reason and objectivity that are gendered male. In other words, this story chronicles a turn in philosophy coincident with the rise of modern science, which generated ideals of reason and objectivity Women want sex Canon are deeply antagonistic to women and feminism.

It is important to note that Lloyd and Bordo differ not Horney matches wants sex looking with regard to the historical story they tell concerning the maleness of reason, but also with regard sec the way they understand that maleness.

For Lloyd, the maleness of reason is symbolic and metaphorical rather than cultural or psychological. Lloyd does not intend the maleness of reason to refer to either a socially constituted gender category or a psychological orientation shared by males.