Romantic music is music written in the 19th century.
In the Classical period artists liked to see clear forms. The gardens of the palace at Versailles are a good example of this with their very tidy Romzntic of straight paths, circular ponds and neatly clipped hedges. In music the Classical composers such as HaydnMozartBeethovenand Schubert liked to compose music which had a clear plan like sonata form.
In the Romantic period artists thought that feeling and passions were more important than formal plans. This can be seen in the gardens deed by Capability Brown, e.
The gardens are made to blend into nature. In music the Romantic composers may still use plans like sonata form, but feelings and passions are artist.
They often write what is called programme music which means: music that describes something or tells a story. Although Beethoven is usually called a composer of the Classical period he is also an early Romantic.
Hector Berlioz wrote a lot of music which tells a story. His Symphonie Fantastique is about an artist madly in love.
Other composers who wrote a lot of programme music include Franz Liszt and Richard Strauss Strauss always wrote in a late-Romantic style even although he lived well into the 20th century. The Romantic period was also the period of Nationalism.
In the 19th century a lot of European countries as we know them were being formed. In music a lot of composers were writing music which was typical of their country. They often did this by using folk music.
Pyotr Srtists wrote music with Russian folk songs in them. Gustav Mahler used German folk songs in his symphonies, and Ralph Vaughan Williams collected English folk songs and put them in his music. One of those pieces was a Fantasy on the famous tune Greensleeves.